On Freedom and Predestination

When Christians talk of freedom, they often phrase it as freedom from sin or death–sometimes more poetically as freedom from the slavery of sin or death. This is not an open freedom; it implies no license. In other words, Christians are not, in fact, free to do as they wish. St. Paul cautions, “Christ set us free; so stand firm and do not submit again to the yoke of slavery…do not use this freedom as an opportunity for the flesh…you may not do what you want” (Gal 5). Christians are offered personal freedom only in the sense of making a choice between a “yoke of slavery” to “the flesh,” and something else. That “something else” is a release. It is the freedom Christians believe Christ won for humanity: the freedom from death and their own sinfulness. It is the freedom to be, each individually, as God created us.

Because the freedom we are used to talking about — the freedom to do as we wish — is much broader, it is perhaps difficult to understand why Christianity would narrow the possible choices of action down to a simple duality: Christ (and the freedom He offers), and death. But in this distinction Christianity is consistent, because Christianity teaches that God created us in His image and likeness to be His free lovers and servants. To do anything else is to reject God. There are only two choices — God or not. Every action we commit is by the Grace and to the Glory of God (i.e. selfless, loving, and joyful) or else is selfish and destructive.

Understanding such a stark choice brings up, inescapably, the issue of predestination. Of course we are destined for God; He created us for Himself. His plan for us since the very beginning is that we find our way to Him of our own free wills. It would be then correct to say of a man who goes to heaven, “he was predestined for it.” All humanity is. But the criteria for getting there in the first place is the exercise of our free will–we are each responsible for choosing God ourselves. C.S. Lewis captures this idea very well in his book Perelandra, whose protagonist Dr. Ransom has decided to do “the right thing” in a critical moment despite his fearful (and selfish) protests:

“You might say, if you liked, that the power of choice had been simply set aside and an inflexible destiny substituted for it. On the other hand, you might say that he had [been] delivered from the rhetoric of his passions and had emerged into unassailable freedom. Ransom could not, for the life of him, see any difference between these two statements. Predestination and freedom were apparently identical.”

I believe that we cannot be predestined to hell. That would infringe on our freedom of choice. It is, rather, our path to heaven that is predestined. When we do what is right–defined, perhaps, as what is both good and necessary, according to our best intention and reflection–we are doing no more than that which God predestined us to do when he “called us by name” (to quote Isaiah). Though we may choose “not God” by doing something selfish and easy, or hurtful — an inherited tendency ours explained in the narrative of the expulsion from the Garden of Eden — God has made each of us only one path to Him, for He created us. One person’s calling is not another, and though they may be guilty of the same sins, their redemptions are going to be as individual as they are. Perhaps this is what scripture refers to when it speaks of “the Elect:” those who succumbed to their destiny or enacted their freedom to choose God (take your pick). Those who don’t are exiled from heaven.

A clue to what they have lost is found in Lewis’ pregnant phrase, “the rhetoric of [Ransom’s] passions.” The word “rhetoric” means “manufactured nobility or grandeur,” and the classic art of Rhetoric was taught to politicians so they could inspire others to their cause. We all have a tendency to think of ourselves with ‘nobility’ and ‘grandeur,’ imagining our needs, wants, and opinions to be so important that we forget to love and enjoy what is around us. This is the sin of Adam: wanting to elevate himself and doing so by seeking what was proper to God, or the knowledge of good and evil. The serpent deceived Eve in this using rhetoric, inspiring her to believe she could be like God if she ate the fruit of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil (incidentally, St. Augustine was once a teacher of Rhetoric, and his Confessions are filled with contempt for that art which teaches men seduce others with good-seeming words). In this phrase Lewis alludes to the human tendency to to let their passions run away with them in a way that is actually harmful, something that is a result of Original Sin. For example, it is natural to find a member of the opposite sex attractive, but following that passion into adultery is clearly wrong.

The faculty by which we regulate our passions is our reason. We have the ability to rationally decide if any given passion is Good or Bad–whether a particular passion is bringing us closer to God (love for a family member, perhaps, or charity for a stranger) or separating us from him (excessive ambition or a desire to hurt another). The ancient definition of Man (from Aristotle) was a rational animal, a creature subject to physical instincts and passions yet endowed with reason for free will. The essence of humanity, then–what it is that separates us from other physical creatures–is our reason, and our unique place in God’s creation as the creatures of His image. To abdicate reason in favor of passions is to reject God’s call, and therefore one’s humanity. Lewis speculates on this again through the thoughts of Ransom:

“Up till that moment, whenever he had thought of Hell, he had pictured the lost souls as being still human; now, as the frightful abyss which parts ghosthood from manhood yawned before him, pity was almost swallowed up in horror–in the unconquerable revulsion of the life within him from positive and self-consuming Death… The forces which had begun, perhaps years ago, to eat away his [enemy’s] humanity had now completed their work… Only a ghost was left–an everlasting unrest, a crumbling, a ruin, an odour of decay.”

Understanding this relationship between passions and reason sheds light on the Christian definition of freedom as freedom from the slavery of sin and death. To be free is to choose God’s path, as best as our reason allows us. Following one’s passions into choosing anything else is leads to error and sin.

Our only hope for everlasting life is to assume the mantle of full humanity: not an indulgent understanding of “human weakness,” not a claim to an unrestricted lifestyle, but a responsibility to choose God–and His specific and individual destiny for us–over every other option, and thereby be free.

Advertisements

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s